1 For example see: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), General Comment 14: The right to the highest attainable standard of health, UN Doc E/C.12/2000/4 para 39 (11 August 2000); CESCR, General Comment 15 on the right to water, UN Doc. E/C.12/2002/1 para 31 (January 2003); Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment 16 on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/16 paras 43 and 44 (April 2013); Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, UN Doc. CEDAW/C/GC/28 para 36 (December 2010). See also Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations of States in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Principles 23-27, http://www.etoconsortium.org/nc/en/main-navigation/library/maastricht-principles/?tx_drblob_pi1%5BdownloadUid%5D=23.
2 United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, John Ruggie 21 (Apr. 9, 2010), http://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/trans_corporations/docs/A-HRC-14-27.pdf.
3 About the IAP, Int’l Ass’n of Prosecutors, http://www.iap-association.org/About (last visited Apr. 28, 2016).
4 Vision & Objectives of the IAP, Int’l Ass’n of Prosecutors, http://www.iap-association.org/About/Vision-Objects (last visited Apr. 28, 2016).
5 Int’l Ass’n of Prosecutors, Declaration on Minimum Standards Concerning the Security and Protection of Public Prosecutors and Their Families, http://www.iap-association.org/getattachment/Resources-Documentation/IAP-Standards/Protection-of-Prosecutors/Standards-Protection-of-Prosecutors.pdf.aspx.
6 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Human Trafficking Case Law Database, Case No. 2012/3925, https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/case-law-doc/traffickingpersonscrimetype/bel/2012/case_no__20123925_html/BEL030-Case_No._2012-3925.pdf.
7 Forced Labour and Trafficking, International Trade Union Confederation (Feb. 10, 2015), www.ituc-csi.org/spip.php?action=converser&var_lang=en&hash=b1e58fed0a992cf70d4045c959dd281c037a36a6&redirect=joint-corporate-liability-in.
8 Human Rights Without Frontiers International, Trafficking in Human Beings in Belgium 2007-2008 (Apr. 28 2009), http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/1020%20Trafficking%20in%20human%20beings%20%28HRWF%202009%29.pdf.
9 International Trade Union Confederation, Joint liability of legal persons in labour trafficking cases – court decision example (Belg.) (Dec. 1 2013), http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/201502102041.pdf.
10 Human Trafficking Case Law Database, Case No. 2012/3925, supra note 6.
12 Belgium – 2. Institutional and Legal Framework: Criminal Law, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/member-states/belgium-2-institutional-and-legal-framework_en (last updated Aug. 25, 2016).
13 Background, Int’l Comm’n Against Impunity in Guatemala, http://www.cicig.org/index.php?page=background (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
14 About CICIG, Int’l Comm’n Against Impunity in Guatemala, http://www.cicig.org/index.php?page=about (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
15 Mandate, Int’l Comm’n Against Impunity in Guatemala, http://www.cicig.org/index.php?page=mandate (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
16 Thematic Reports, Int’l Comm’n Against Impunity in Guatemala, http://www.cicig.org/index.php?page=thematic_reports (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
17 Arturo Matute, Ending Corruption in Guatemala, Int’l Crisis Grp. (Apr. 30, 2015), http://blog.crisisgroup.org/latin-america/2015/04/30/ending-corruption-in-guatemala.
19 Azam Ahmed & Elisabeth Malkin, Otto Pérez Molina of Guatemala Is Jailed Hours After Resigning Presidency, New York Times (Sept. 3, 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/04/world/americas/otto-perez-molina-guatemalan-president-resigns-amid-scandal.html?_r=1.
20 Judgment in the case against Frans Van A, (2005) 09/751003-04 (The Hague District Court).
23 Frans Van Anraat, Trial Watch (Apr. 26, 2016), https://trialinternational.org/latest-post/frans-van-anraat/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
26 Frans Van A, (2005) 09/751003-04, supra note 20.
29 LJN: BZ8333, Rechtbank’sGravenhage, C/09/355125/HA ZA 094324 (Civiel Overig) (Neth.), http://www.liesbethzegveld.com/user/file/130424_uitspraak_van_anraat_(civiel).pdf.
30 REDRESS & the International Federation for Human Rights (fidh), Strategies for the Effective Investigation and Prosecution of Serious International Crimes: The Practice of Specialised War Crimes Units 17 (Dec. 2010), http://www.redress.org/downloads/publications/The_Practice_of_Specialised_War_Crimes_Units_Dec_2010.pdf.
31 Amnesty Int’l & Greenpeace, The Toxic Truth: About a Company called Trafigura, a Ship called the Probo Koala, and the Dumping of Toxic Waste in Cote D’Ivoire 25-40, 45-49 (Sept. 25, 2012) [hereinafter The Toxic Truth], https://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/afr310022012eng.pdf.
32 Id. at 51-58.
33 Id. at 129.
34 Agreement of 13 February 2007 between the State of Ivory Coast, Trafigura Beheer BV, Trafigura Limited and Puma Energy Côte d’Ivoire Article 7, http://www.greenpeacephp.nl/trafiguradossiers/Trafigura%20koop%20vervolging%20Ivoorkust%20af.pdf.
36 The Toxic Truth, supra note 31 at 138-143.
37 Id. at 155.
38 Decision of the District Court of Amsterdam, In the case of: Trafigura Beheer B.V. (Public Prosecutor’s Office No. 13/846003-06); Openbaar Ministerie (Functioneel Parket), Trafigura’s punishment final, top executive settles (Nov 16, 2012), https://www.om.nl/vaste-onderdelen/zoeken/@31000/trafigura-punishment/.
39 The Toxic Truth, supra note 31 at 160 fn 704.
40 Amnesty Int’l, Memorandum to the Director of Public Prosecutions Concerning Trafigura (Mar 17, 2014).
41 Environment Agency, Environment Agency Decision Document: Re Proposed Investigation of Trafigura Ltd (Mar 17, 2015) (letter on file with Amnesty International).
42 Amnesty Int’l, Too Toxic to Touch? The UK’s Response to Amnesty International’s Call for A Criminal Investigation into Trafigura Ltd. 5 (July 23, 2015) [hereinafter Too Toxic to Touch?], https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur45/2101/2015/en/; Amnesty Int’l, UK: Threat of High Court action spurs review of corporate conspiracy claim (Nov. 20, 2014), https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2014/11/uk-threat-high-court-action-spurs-review-corporate-conspiracy-claim/.
43 Yao Esaie Motto & Others v Trafigura Limited and Trafigura Beheer BV in the High Court of Justice, Queen’s Bench Division, Claim No. HQ06X03370 [hereinafter UK Claim].
44 UK Claim, Agreed Final Joint Statement (issued on behalf of all parties to the Trafigura Personal Injury Group Litigation), http://www.trafigura.com/images/probo-koala/Trafigura_and_Leigh_Day_Co_agreed_final_Joint_Statement.pdf.
45 Too Toxic to Touch?, supra note 42 at 3.
46 For Trafigura’s full response to the case example, please see their letter of 19 August 2016 at http://www.commercecrimehumanrights.org. For full details of Trafigura’s position and its response to The Toxic Truth, see Probo Koala, Trafigura, http://www.trafigura.com/media-centre/probo-koala/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016); The Toxic Truth, supra note 31 at 228-229.
47 United Nations, Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Report on the conclusions of the Special Investigation concerning allegations of summary executions and other human rights violations perpetrated by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) in Kilwa (Katanga Province) on 15 October 2004 8, http://www.raid-uk.org/sites/default/files/monuc-final-report.pdf.
50 Id. at 1.
51 Id. at 8.
52 See Rights and Accountability in Development (RAID), Congolese Military Judge Calls for the Prosecution of Former Anvil Mining Staff for Complicity in War Crimes, Congo Planet (Oct. 18, 2006), http://www.congoplanet.com/article.jsp?id=4526576.
53 Press Release, Victims of Kilwa Massacre Denied Justice by Congolese Military Court, Global Witness (July 17, 2007), https://www.globalwitness.org/en/archive/victims-kilwa-massacre-denied-justice-congolese-military-court.
54 Public Prosecutor v. Adémar Ilunga, et. al. (2007) R.P. Nº 010/2006 (Military Court of Katanga, Congo).
56 United Nations, RDC : Louise Arbour préoccupée par un verdict d’acquittement pour les exactions commises à Kilwa (July 5, 2007), http://www.un.org/apps/newsFr/storyF.asp?NewsID=14405&Cr=RDC&Cr1=Kilwa&Kw1=congo&Kw2=violations&Kw3=&_sm_au_=iVVqZ22DDDv5tZRM#.V1lTTrsrK01.
57 Press Release,Victims of Kilwa Massacre Denied Justice by Congolese Military Court, supra note 53.
58 Sally Neighbour, The Kilwa Incident, Four Corners (June 6, 2005), http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/content/2005/s1384238.htm.
59 Letter from Global Witness, RAID and MiningWatch Canada to the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada (Mar. 6, 2007), available at http://www.raid-uk.org/sites/default/files/raid-canada-ag.pdf; Anvil in Kilwa, DRC, 2004, RAID, http://www.raid-uk.org/content/anvil-kilwa-drc-2004 (last visited July 15, 2016).
61 Letter from the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada to Global Witness, RAID and MiningWatch Canada (June 27, 2007) (letter held on file by RAID).
62 CAAI is an organization established by an international consortium of NGOs with the primary purpose of undertaking class action cases. Some of the NGOs in this case included: Action Against Impunity for Human Rights (hereafter “ACIDH”), the African Association for the Defence of Human Rights (hereafter “ASADHO”), the Canadian Centre for International Justice (hereafter “CCIJ”), Global Witness and RAID.
63 See Anvil Mining Ltd. c. Association canadienne contre l’impunité, 2012 QCCA 117 (COUR D’APPEL) [hereinafter Anvil v. CAII].
64 Id. In reaching its decision, the appellate court accepted Anvil Mining’s arguments that the dispute was not related to the company’s activities in Québec because Anvil Mining was not established in Quebec at the time the events took place and its activities in Québec were not linked to the management of the mine in the DRC. This decision was in direct contravention with the findings of the lower court, however, the Canadian Supreme Court still declined to hear the plaintiff’s appeal given the appellate court’s decision. See Canadian Press, Supreme Court won’t hear appeal in Congo massacre case, CBC News (Nov. 1, 2012), http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/supreme-court-won-t-hear-appeal-in-congo-massacre-case-1.1297191.
65 RAID, Ten years on: still no justice for Kilwa victims (updated), http://www.raid-uk.org/sites/default/files/kilwa-10-years.pdf.
66 See United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), The Status and Role of Prosecutors, Criminal Justice Handbook Series (2014), https://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/14-07304_ebook.pdf.
71 Code for Crown Prosecutors, Crown Prosecution Service, https://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/code_for_crown_prosecutors/codetest.html (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
72 Guidance on Corporate Prosecutions, Crown Prosecution Service, http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/a_to_c/corporate_prosecutions/ (last visited Aug. 29, 2016).
75 Press Release, No further action to be taken in Operations Weeting or Golding, Crown Prosecution Service (Dec. 11, 2015), http://www.cps.gov.uk/news/latest_news/no_further_action_to_be_taken_in_operations_weeting_or_golding.
76 Director of Public Prosecutions of the Crown Prosecution Service, Victims’ Right to Review Guidance 3 (July, 2016), http://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/docs/vrr_guidance_2016.pdf.
77 See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and Related Documents (2011), https://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/ConvCombatBribery_ENG.pdf.
78 R (On the Application of Corner House Research and others) (Respondents) v. Director of the Serious Fraud Office,  UKHL 60 (appeal taken from  EWHC 246) [hereinafter R v. Fraud Office], http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200708/ldjudgmt/jd080730/corner.pdf.
79 The Attorney General, BAE Systems: Al Yamamah Contract, UK Parliamentary Website (Dec. 14, 2006 5:21 PM), http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200607/ldhansrd/text/61214-0014.htm; R v. Fraud Office at paras. 3-22.
80 Christopher Hope, Halt inquiry or we cancel Eurofighters, Telegraph (Dec. 1, 2006), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1535683/Halt-inquiry-or-we-cancel-Eurofighters.html.
81 Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions, United Kingdom: Phase 2 Follow-up Report on the Implementation of the Phase 2 Recommendations, OECD (June 21, 2007).
82 DLH lawsuit (re Liberian civil war), Bus. & Human Rights Res. Centre, http://business-humanrights.org/en/dlh-lawsuit-re-liberian-civil-war (last visited August 26, 2016).
83 Global Witness, Bankrolling Brutality (2010), https://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/import/bankrolling_brutality_hi.pdf.
84 Liberia: Danish firm DHL violates its own principles on wood purchasing, World Rainforest Movement, http://wrm.org.uy/oldsite/bulletin/48/Liberia.html (last visited July 12, 2016).
85 The Public Prosecutor v. Guus Kouwenhoven, International Crimes Database, http://www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Case/2238 (last visited July 12, 2016); Press Release, Global Witness Welcomes Dutch Court Decision to Retry Timber Baron Guus Kouwenhoven for Crimes Committed During Liberian War, Global Witness (Apr. 21, 2010), https://www.globalwitness.org/en/archive/global-witness-welcomes-dutch-court-decision-retry-timber-baron-guus-kouwenhoven-crimes/.
86 Procedures & Milestones: DLH Liberia, SHERPA (Nov. 17, 2014), https://www.asso-sherpa.org/procedures-and-milestones-dlh-liberia.
87 Information provided by SHERPA (June 16, 2016) (record on file with ICAR).
88 Procedures & Milestones: DLH Liberia, supra note 86.
89 Information provided by SHERPA (June 16, 2016) (record on file with ICAR).
90 Press Release, Complaint Accuses International Timber Company DLH of Trading Illegal Timber and Funding Liberian War, Global Witness (Mar. 12, 2014), https://www.globalwitness.org/en/archive/complaint-accuses-international-timber-company-dlh-trading-illegal-timber-and-funding-0.
91 Global Witness v. Dalhoff Larsen and Horneman (DLH), The Forest Stewardship Council https://ic.fsc.org/en/stakeholders/dispute-resolution/archived-cases/dlh-liberia (last visited July 12, 2016).
92 Mission and Vision, Forest Stewardship Council, https://us.fsc.org/en-us/what-we-do/mission-and-vision (last visited July 12, 2016).
93 Forest Stewardship Council Statement, Forest Stewardship Council Disassociates from the DLH Group Decision due to reputational risks for FSC linked to stakeholder disputes in Liberia (Feb. 12, 2015); Liberia: Wartime Timber Company Penalized, AllAfrica (Feb. 16, 2015), http://allafrica.com/stories/201502170685.html.
95 Company Announcement, Close Down DLH France, DLH (Feb. 15, 2016), http://file.euroinvestor.com/newsattachments/2016/02/13309622/04%202016%20Close%20down%20DLH%20France.pdf.
96 European Centre for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR), Nestlé precedent case: Murder of trade unionist Romero in Colombia (Apr. 27, 2016), http://www.ecchr.eu/en/our_work/business-and-human-rights/nestle.html.
98 Malcolm Curtis, Time runs out for Nestlé ‘murder’ lawsuit, The Local (May 2, 2013 8:02 PM), http://www.thelocal.ch/20130502/time-runs-out-for-murder-lawsuit-against-nestle.
99 ECCHR, Update in the Nestlé case: Prosecutor Under Court Review (June 14, 2013), http://www.corporatejustice.org/UPDATE-in-the-Nestle-Case.html.
100 ECCHR, Nestlé precedent case: Murder of trade unionist Romero in Colombia (Jan. 5, 2015), http://www.ecchr.eu/en/our_work/business-and-human-rights/nestle.html.
102 United States v. Ionia Mgmt S.A., 555 F.3d 303 (2d Cir. 2009).
104 Tjitske Lingsma, The International Criminal Court’s Quest for Scientific Evidence, Witness (Apr. 27, 2016), https://blog.witness.org/2015/04/the-international-criminal-courts-quest-for-scientific-evidence.
105 Office of the Prosecutor, Strategic Plan, June 2012-2015, Int’l Crim. Ct. (Oct. 11, 2013), https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Strategic-Plan-2013.pdf.
107 Human Rights Center at U.C. Berkeley School of Law, First Responders: An International Workshop on Collecting and Analyzing Evidence of International Crimes (Sept. 8-11, 2014), https://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/HRC/First_Responders_final_with_cover4.pdf.
108 History of Eurojust, Eurojust: The European Union’s Judicial Cooperation Unit (Eurojust), http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/about/background/Pages/History.aspx (last visited May 11, 2016).
110 Mission and Tasks, Eurojust (last visited May 11, 2016), http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/about/background/Pages/mission-tasks.aspx.
111 Eurojust, Implementation of the Eurojust Action Plan against THB 2012-2016, Mid-Term Report 13-14 (Nov. 2014), http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/eurojust-framework/casework/implementation%20of%20the%20eurojust%20action%20plan%20against%20thb%202012-2016%20-%20mid-term%20report%20(november%202014)/thb-mid-term-report-2015-02-05_en.pdf.
114 Robin McDowell, Margie Mason & Martha Mendoza, Slaves may have caught the fish you bought, Associated Press (Mar. 25, 2015), http://www.ap.org/explore/seafood-from-slaves/ap-investigation-slaves-may-have-caught-the-fish-you-bought.html.
115 Associated Press, Indonesia opens trials of 6 accused of enslaving fishermen, Bangkok Post (Nov. 17, 2015), http://www.bangkokpost.com/archive/indonesia-opens-trials-of-6-accused-of-enslaving-fishermen/767900.
116 Associated Press, Indonesia opens trials of 8 accused of enslaving fishermen, Honolulu Star Advisor (Nov. 16, 2015), http://www.staradvertiser.com/breaking-news/indonesia-opens-trials-of-8-accused-of-enslaving-fishermen.
117 Thailand Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Thailand’s Progress Report on Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts 5 (Mar. 31, 2015), http://www.mfa.go.th/main/contents/files/media-center-20150430-161606-980768.pdf.
118 Press Release, PM joins ASEAN leaders in signing ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Royal Thai Gov’t (Nov. 21, 2015), http://www.thaigov.go.th/index.php/en/government-en1/item/97737-pm-joins-asean-leaders-in-signing-asean-convention-against-trafficking-in-persons-especially-women-and-children.html.
119 Amnesty Int’l, Clouds of Injustice: Bhopal disaster 20 years on 12-13 (Nov. 29, 2004), https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/ASA20/015/2004/en.
120 Gov’t of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department, Annual Report 2003; for a brief description of gas-related health effects and their ongoing impact see Amnesty Int’l, Clouds of Injustice, supra note 119.
121 S. Muralidhar, Unsettling Truths, Untold Tales: The Bhopal Gas Disaster Victims’ Twenty Years’ of Courtroom Struggles for Justice, Int’l Envtl L. Research Centre 39 (2004), www.ielrc.org/content/w0405.pdf; See also Amnesty Int’l, Justice Incorporated: Corporate Abuses and the human rights to remedy fn 156 (2014), https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/pol30/001/2014/en/.
122 The New York Times quoted a diplomatic source concerning the intervention: “Throughout the day we were in close consultation with the Indian government at a high level…We expressed deep concern and our hope that the situation could be rectified”. Robert Reinhold, Indians arrest and then free U.S Executive, New York Times (Dec. 8, 1984), http://www.nytimes.com/1984/12/08/world/indians-arrest-and-then-free-us-executive.html?pagewanted=all. For a comprehensive account, see Dan Kurzman, A Killing Wind: Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe 122, McGraw-Hill, (New York 1987).
123 Notice dated 22 July 1991, filed with the Hong Kong Registrar of Companies on 20 August 1991. On 18 December 1990, UCE had ceased to have a place of business in Hong Kong, according to Notice of Cessation dated 8 January 1991, filed with the Hong Kong Registrar of Companies on 12 January 1991.
124 See generally Muralidhar, Unsettling Truths, supra note 121.
125 Union Carbide Corporation v. Union of India, (1989) SCC 540; 14 February 1989, AIR 1990 SC 273 (India).
126 Union Carbide Corporation v. Union of India, (1991) 4 SCC 584; AIR 1992 SC 248 (India).
127 State of Madhya Pradesh v. Warren Anderson (Absconder) and Others, Cr. Case No.8460 /1996 (Court of the Chief Judicial Magistrate Bhopal) Madhya Pradesh– Date of Institution 1 Dec. 1987, Judgment of 7 June 2010.
128 Bano v. Union Carbide Corp., 99 Civ 11329 (JFK) amended class action complaint.
129 The request was rejected by the US Department of Justice in June 2004 “as it does not meet the requirements of Articles 2(1) and 9(3) of the Extradition Treaty”. Fax from Ashley Deeks, United States Department, Office of the Legal Adviser, May 25, 2004.
130 Union Carbide Corp., 99 Civ 11329 (India).
131 CBI v. Warren Anderson and Others, Criminal Case No. RC 3(S)/1984-ACU.I, MJC No. 91/92, NDOH-14.3.2015, Submission of Death Investigation Field Report of Mr. Warren Anderson, Mar. 16 2015.
132 Notices of service were issued by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on The Dow Chemical Company on 6 Jan. 2005, 23 July 2013, 4 Aug. 2014, 22 Nov. 2014 and 15 Sept. 2015.
133 CBI v. Warren Anderson and Others, Criminal Case No. RC 3(S)/1984-ACU.I, MJC No. 91/92, NDOH-12.11.2014, Service report of show cause notice issued by this Honourable Court for service upon The DOW Chemical Company U.S.A. (Nov. 12, 2014); CBI v. Warren Anderson and Others, Criminal Case No. RC 3(S)/1984-ACU.I, MJC No. 91/92, NDOH-14.3.2015, Service report of show cause notice issued by this Honourable Court for service upon The DOW Chemical Company U.S.A. (Mar. 16, 2015).
134 Letter from The Dow Chemical Co. to Amnesty Int’l of July 1, 2014 (July 1, 2014).
135 Letter from the U.S. Dep’t of Justice to the Under Sec’y to the Gov’t of India, Ministry of Home Affairs regarding Request for Service of Summons on DOW Chemical Company in Criminal Case No. RC 3(S)/1984-CBI, ACU.I, MJC No. 91/92 (No. 25012/11/2014 – Legal Cell 114) (Sept. 25, 2015).
136 Uphold International Law! Stop Shielding Dow Chemical from Accountability for Corporate Crimes in Bhopal, India, We the People (May 15, 2016), https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/uphold-international-law-stop-shielding-dow-chemical-accountability-corporate-crimes-bhopal-india.
137 Email from the White House “We the People Team” of 10 August 2016 (record on file with Amnesty International).
138 Case example provided by Robert W. Seiden, Esq., President, Confidential Global Investigations (CGI) (June 9, 2016) (record on file with ICAR).
140 Jim Yardley, Report on Deadly Factory Collapse in Bangladesh Finds Widespread Blame, supra note 139.
141 Associated Press, Bangladesh court accepts murder charges in factory collapse case, Aljazeera America (Dec. 21, 2015), http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/12/21/bangladesh-court-accepts-murder-charges-in-factory-collapse-case.html; Associated Press, Rana Plaza Collapse: Dozens Charged with Murder, The Guardian (June 1, 2015), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/01/rana-plaza-collapse-dozens-charged-with-murder-bangladesh.
142 Bangladesh murder trial over Rana Plaza factory collapse, BBC (June 1, 2015), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-32956705.
143 Human Rights Watch, Whoever Raises Their Head Suffers the Most: Workers’ Rights in Bangladesh’s Garment Factories, supra note 139.
145 Agence France-Presse, Rana Plaza: 24 Murder Suspects Abscond Before Trial, The Guardian (Dec. 21, 2015), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/21/rana-plaza-24-suspects-abscond-before-trial.
147 Bangladesh murder trial over Rana Plaza factory collapse, supra note 4; Ruma Paul, Bangladesh Charges 38 with murder over 2013 garment factory collapse, Reuters (July 18, 2016), http://in.reuters.com/article/bangladesh-rana-plaza-disaster-trial-idINKCN0ZY1GW.
148 Court Accepts Chargesheet in Murder Case Filed Over Rana Plaza Collapse, bdnews24.com (Dec. 21, 2015), http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/12/21/court-accepts-chargesheet-in-murder-case-filed-over-rana-plaza-collapse.
149 Associated Press, Bangladesh court accepts murder charges in factory collapse case, Aljazeera America (Dec. 21, 2015), http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/12/21/bangladesh-court-accepts-murder-charges-in-factory-collapse-case.html.
150 News Desk, The Daily Star (Bangladesh), Rana Plaza owner, 17 others indicted for building code violation, Asia News Network (June 15, 2016), http://www.asianews.network/content/rana-plaza-owner-17-others-indicted-building-code-violation-19774.
151 Rana Plaza Court Case Postponed in Bangladesh, Aljazeera (Aug. 23, 2016), http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/08/rana-plaza-tragedy-bangladesh-puts-18-trial-160823051641161.html.
152 Md Sanaul Islam Tipu, Rana Plaza: 2 get bail on surrender, Dhaka Tribune (Feb. 10, 2016), http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2016/feb/10/rana-plaza-2-get-bail-surrender#sthash.QCdF5b2g.dpuf.
153 Matt Apuzzo, A U.S. Tax Investigation Snowballed to Stun the Soccer World, New York Times (May 29, 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/30/sports/soccer/more-indictments-expected-in-fifa-case-irs-official-says.html.
154 Office of Public Affairs, Nine FIFA Officials and Five Corporate Executives Indicted for Racketeering Conspiracy and Corruption, Dep’t of Justice (May 27, 2015), https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/nine-fifa-officials-and-five-corporate-executives-indicted-racketeering-conspiracy-and.
155 Press Release, U.S. Attorney of the Southern District of New York Announces Criminal Charges Against General Motors and Deferred Prosecution Agreement with $900 Million Forfeiture, Dep’t of Justice (Sept. 17, 2015), https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/us-attorney-southern-district-new-york-announces-criminal-charges-against-general-motors-and.
156 Danielle Ivory & Bill Vlasic, $900 Million Penalty for G.M.’s Deadly Defect Leaves Many Cold, New York Times (Sept. 17, 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/18/business/gm-to-pay-us-900-million-over-ignition-switch-flaw.html.
157 David Uhlmann, Justice Falls Short in G.M. Case, New York Times (Sept. 19, 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/20/opinion/sunday/justice-falls-short-in-gm-case.html.
158 David Shepardson, Lawyers accuse GM of violating DOJ consent agreement, Detroit News (Oct. 16, 2015), http://www.detroitnews.com/story/business/autos/general-motors/2015/10/16/lawyers-accuse-gm-violating-doj-consent-agreement/74050510; Aebra Coe, Firms Stand by Suggestion GM Broke $900M Prosecution Deal, Law360 (Oct. 16, 2015, 2:58 PM), http://www.law360.com/articles/715106/firms-stand-by-suggestion-gm-broke-900m-prosecution-deal.
159 David Shepardson, supra note 158; Jacob Fischler, GM Retracts Dismissal Bid In Ignition Switch MDL, Law360 (Oct. 6, 2015, 9:02 PM), http://www.law360.com/articles/711592/gm-retracts-dismissal-bid-in-ignition-switch-mdl.
160 Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates, Memorandum on Individual Accountability for Corporate Wrongdoing, Dep’t of Justice (Sept. 9, 2015), https://www.justice.gov/dag/file/769036/download.
161 U.S. Attorneys’ Manual, Title 9: Criminal, Principles of Federal Prosecution Of Business Organizations, Office of the U.S. Attorneys, Dep’t of Justice (last updated Nov. 2015), https://www.justice.gov/usam/usam-9-28000-principles-federal-prosecution-business-organizations.
162 Alstom Network UK Ltd & Alstom Power Ltd, Serious Fraud Office (Mar. 3, 2015), https://www.sfo.gov.uk/cases/alstom-network-uk-ltd-alstom-power-ltd.
163 Tereza Pultarova, Alstom UK president charged in corruption investigation, Engineering & Technology Magazine (Mar. 30, 2016), http://eandt.theiet.org/news/2016/mar/alstom-fraud.cfm.
165 Alstom Network UK Ltd & Alstom Power Ltd, supra note 162.
166 Sa Majesté La Reine c. Les Pétroles Global Inc., 2013 QCCS 4262 (Quebec District Court).
167 Criminal Code of Canada, L.R.C. (1985), ch. C-46; Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP, Criminal Liability of Companies, Lex Mundi Pub., (2008).
168 Parliament of Canada, Second Reading of Bill C-45, Hansard 1335 (Sept. 15, 2003), http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?pub=Hansard&doc=119&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=37&Ses=2#T1335.
169 R. c. Pétroles Global inc., 2013 QCCS 4262 (CanLII); Guy Pinsonnault & Pierre-Christian Collins Hoffman, R. v. Pétroles Global: The First Judgment in a Decade to Apply the New Canadian Corporate Criminal Liability Regime, The Marker, McMillan LLP (June, 2014).
173 World Bank sanctions Lahmeyer International for corrupt activities in bank-financed projects, Probe Int’l (Nov. 6, 2006) [hereinafter World Bank, Lahmeyer Sanctions], https://journal.probeinternational.org/2006/11/06/world-bank-sanctions-lahmeyer-international-corrupt-activities-bank-financed-projects.
174 Nicholas Hildyard, Neutral? Against What? Bystanders and Human rights Abuses: The case of Merowe Dam, 37 Sudan Studies 19 (2008), http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk/sites/thecornerhouse.org.uk/files/MeroweSudanStudies.pdf.
175 Mabusetsa Lenka Thamae & Lori Pottinger, On the Wrong Side of Development, Transformation Res. Centre (2006), https://www.internationalrivers.org/sites/default/files/attached-files/wrongside2006.pdf.
176 World Bank, Lahmeyer Sanctions, supra note 173.
177 Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, Lesotho Highlands Water Project (Canada), World Bank – UNODC (2016), http://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/node/18540.
178 World Bank, Lahmeyer Sanctions, supra note 173.
179 Joe Palazzolo, A First: World Bank Ends Debarment Early, Citing Good Compliance, Wall Street Journal (Aug. 17, 2011), http://blogs.wsj.com/corruption-currents/2011/08/17/a-first-world-bank-ends-debarment-early-citing-good-compliance.
180 World Bank Debars SNC-Lavalin Inc. and its Affiliates for 10 years, The World Bank (Apr. 17, 2013), http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/world-bank-debars-snc-lavalin-inc-and-its-affiliates-for-ten-years.
181 Integrity Vice Presidency, The World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/about/unit/integrity-vice-presidency (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
182 World Bank Group v. Wallace,  SCC 15 (Can.) paras 14-16, available at https://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/15915/index.do.
183 Id. at para 20.
185 Press Release, Peruvian torture victims obtain worldwide freezing injunction over mining company assets, LeighDay (Oct. 19, 2009) [hereinafter LeighDay worldwide freezing injunction], https://www.leighday.co.uk/News/2009/October-2009/Peruvian-torture-victims-obtain-worldwide-freezing.
186 Press Release, Peruvian torture claimants compensated by UK mining company, LeighDay (July 20, 2001) [hereinafter claimants compensated], https://www.leighday.co.uk/News/2011/July-2011/Peruvian-torture-claimants-compensated-by-UK-minin.
188 LeighDay worldwide freezing injunction, supra note 185.
189 LeighDay, claimants compensated, supra note 186.
190 The Code of Criminal Procedure, section 154 (1) and section 881 (3) (1973) Republic of India; Mandeep Tiwana, Human Rights and Policing, Landmark Supreme Court Directives & National Human Rights Commission Guidelines, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (Apr., 2005).
191 Police Act 1861, Republic of India.
192 UPSC v. S Papiah (1997) 7 SCC 614 (India).
193 The Code of Criminal Procedure, section 301 (2) (1973) Republic of India.
194 Id. at section 378 (4).
195 State v. Golfview Mining (Pty) Ltd, ESH 82/11, Ermelo CAS 462/07/2009.
198 Mining Company Director Convicted of Environmental Offences, Suspended Sentence Linked to Cleanup, Centre for Envtl. Rights (Feb. 4, 2014), http://cer.org.za/news/breaking-news-mining-company-director-convicted-of-environmental-offences-suspended-sentence-linked-to-cleanup.
199 Id.; Tracey Davies, Government Should do More to Protect Communities from Companies that Destroy the Environment, GroundUp (May 20, 2014), http://www.groundup.org.za/article/government-should-do-more-protect-communities-companies-destroy-environment_1798; State v. Blue Platinum Ventures PTY LTD & Maponya Case no. RN 126/13 at 7 (S.Afr. 2014) Magistrates Court for the Regional Division of Limpopo.
200 Tracey Davies, Government Should do More to Protect Communities from Companies that Destroy the Environment, supra note 199.
203 Mining Company Director Convicted of Environmental Offences, Suspended Sentence Linked to Cleanup, supra note 198.
205 Act on the Protection of Public Interest Whistleblowers, Art. 2(2) 2011 (S. Kor.) [hereinafter Whistleblowers Act (S. Kor.)].
206 Id. at art. 4; Enforcement Decree of the Act on Anti-Corruption and the Establishment and Operation of the Anti-Corruption & Civil Rights Commission, 2011 (S. Kor.).
207 Whistleblowers Act (S. Kor.) at Arts. 20-22.
209 Id. at arts. 12, 30.
210 Id. at art. 22(2).
211 Paul Stephenson, What Makes a Good Whistleblower Law?, WhistleNetwork (2014), https://whistlenetwork.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/stephenson-article-1-website-version-jan-14.pdf.
212 Mary Jane Wilmoth, In Korea: Whistleblowers Help Collect Taxes, Whistleblower Blog (Mar. 17, 2015), http://www.whistleblowersblog.org/2015/03/articles/tax-whistleblowers/in-korea-whistleblowers-help-collect-taxes.
213 Whistleblower Act No. 720 (2006), article 1 (Ghana).
217 Patience Ama Gbeze, Enforcing the Whistleblowers’ Act and the challenges, News Ghana (July 23, 2013), http://www.newsghana.com.gh/enforcing-the-whistleblowers-act-and-the-challenges.
218 Afrileaks, https://www.afrileaks.org/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
219 Wildleaks, https://wildleaks.org (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
220 Transparency International, https://www.transparency.org/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
221 Secure Drop, The Guardian, https://securedrop.theguardian.com/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
222 Crimestopppers, https://crimestoppers-uk.org/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
223 The Crimestoppers Guarantee, Crimestoppers, https://crimestoppers-uk.org/give-information/the-crimestoppers-guarantee/ (last visited Aug. 26, 2016).
224 Crimestoppers, Impact Report 2014/15 8, https://crimestoppers-uk.org/media/386644/cs-impact-report-2014-15.pdf.